Sun City

How the Anglo American Network Took Power in Rwanda and DRC

Using Tutsi Supremacists and Minority Rights

Image: Sun City Peace Accord, Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, NYC. Joseph Kabila, Thabo Mbeki, George Bush and Paul Kagame


Rwanda is not defined by a geographical space; it is a state of mind. “

RPA Brigadier General Frank Rusagara {1}


By PD Lawton, 25 June 2024

With special thanks to Keith Harmon Snow for contributing to this article. (Paragraphs contributed denoted by KHS)


The eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) have been in a state of permanent war, depopulation and plunder since 1996 when the DRC (then Zaire) was invaded. During the ‘First Congo War’, 1996-1998, proxy armies backed by the USA (and allies)  invaded and occupied Zaire, removed long-time U.S. operative President Mobutu Sese Seko and installed  Laurent-Désiré Kabila as president. Since 1996, well in excess of 12 million Congolese have died violent deaths and the entire population of Eastern Congo has been terrorized, traumatized and dislocated.

“In 1996, the proxy armies invaded from Rwanda and Uganda, under the direction of Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni and Rwandan president Paul Kagame, but they also included Eritrean and Ethiopian troops, and they were backed by a phalanx of powerful corporate interests, mercenaries, military intelligence operatives, and other war profiteers. Barely behind the scenes, they had the full support of the U.S. Pentagon.”

“Now 28 years later, the destabilization of the Congo — the mass murder and plunder facilitated by global supply chains and rogue capitalism — continues. The most recent attacks in early June 2024 culminated of at least 50 innocent Congolese civilians in a massacre committed by one of the more than 200 militias occupying eastern Congo.”

“The civilians were tortured, their arms tied behind their backs at the elbows — a torture technique called Akandoya – and thrown in the Luholu River in the province of North Kivu. The bodies were also mutilated. Akandoya is a torture technique first used by Museveni’s National Resistance Army during the Luwero Triangle terror in Uganda (1980-1985), adopted by Museveni’s protégé and Director of Military Intelligence Paul Kagame, routinely used by Kagame’s RPA during the Rwandan Civil War (1990-1994), and it is a signature reminder of the unrelenting atrocities committed by the Rwandan and Ugandan militias in Congo. Many of these Rwandan and Ugandan soldiers have been ‘trained’ by U.S. military experts, training in the euphemistically named ‘counter-insurgency’ guerrilla warfare tactics perfected by the legendary U.S. military School of the Americas known for training death squad commandos and dictators.” KHS

Eastern Congo is comprised of 3 provinces; Ituri, North Kivu and South Kivu. All 3 provinces are extremely beautiful, fertile and blessed with water in addition to a mineral wealth which is an unparalleled global phenomenon. The ultimate goal of Paul Kagame`s Rwanda is annexation of North Kivu. Constant low intensity war over the last 30 years has resulted in depopulation, a gradual genocide. The rural communities in North Kivu and Ituri are routinely subjected to extreme coercion, forced under terrorizing tactics into working with the Rwandan backed militias, M23, and the Ugandan backed militias, ADF. Village and community leaders who refuse to collaborate are routinely murdered; women are subjected to extreme sexual violence before being murdered. Terrorism is an insufficient word to describe what is happening in North Kivu. The names of towns like Beni in Lubero Territory are synonymous with massacres.

Violence escalated dramatically around October 2023. This is because the president of DRC, Felix Tshisekedi, is achieving a measure of success in getting the international community to respond to his calls for Rwanda to be recognized as the force behind M23. As Paul Kagame is now facing the end of his tenure, his tyranny is having a final killing spree. The increase in violence escalated after Tshisekedi announced the date of December 2023 for the withdrawal of MONUSCU, the UN stabilization mission that has worked in tandem with Kagame and his fellow Tutsi supremacists in DRC.

MONUSCO is a mercenary operation run by the NATO alliance. As of June 2024 they have yet to depart.

The EU ambassadors were recently summoned in Kinshasa. We can assume Tshisekedi explained to them that Congolese minerals will in future only be traded through DRC. They will no longer be able to buy cheap, illicit Congolese minerals from Rwanda.

Image: EU ambassadors received by Pres. Tshisekedi. Image courtesy of Surveillance. cd

President Tshisekedi is confronting Silicon Valley , as reported in the Financial Times;

“In the letter, France- and US-based lawyers for the DRC say that Apple’s iPhones, Mac computers and other accessories are “tainted by the blood of the Congolese people”.

” ‘M23’ is the acronym for the Movement of March 23 [2009], but it is nothing more or less than another of the hundreds of Rwandan and Ugandan military offshoots comprising the alphabet soup of terrorist forces in the Congo. The M23 militia is merely the most recent incarnation of Rwandan and/or Ugandan troops that have occupied the Congo. The M23 was born the day that war criminal Laurent Nkunda called for ‘peace talks’ and thereafter orchestrated the veritable coup d’etat of having Rwandan troops of the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP) — then the most recent incarnation or Rwandan terrorism in Congo — integrated in the Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo, it’s former enemy army, the Congolese national army.”

Wikipedia’s description of the CNDP is a laughable farce that mirrors many international media statements about the CNDP and its commanders:

The National Congress for the Defence of the People (French: Congrès national pour la défense du peuple, CNDP) is a political armed militia established by Laurent Nkunda in the Kivu region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in December 2006. The CNDP was engaged in the Kivu conflict, an armed conflict against the military of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In January 2009, the CNDP split and Nkunda was arrested by the Rwanda government. The remaining CNDP splinter faction, led by Bosco Ntaganda, was planned to be integrated into the national army.

“This caricature of reality advances the mythology that Rwandan General Laurent Nkunda was arrested by his ‘superiors’ in Rwanda. In fact, General Laurent Nkunda commands the Rwandan M23 forces in Congo today. The ‘arrest’ of Nkunda and his subsequent disappearance on the world stage is part of the smoke-and-mirror or slight-of-hand games played by Paul Kagame and his Tutsi extremist mafia. Kagame’s magic tricks are welcomed by the ‘international community’, offering the supposed ruse of plausible denial that international power brokers and governments hide behind. ”  KHS

The Anglo American networks who are Kagame`s sponsors, will attempt to capitalize on the current horrific level of violence against civilians by calling for humanitarian intervention which could result in a `temporary` provisional government being imposed by the UN, ultimately playing into the goal of Rwandan annexation of Congolese territory or at least a semi-autonomous region in Eastern Congo, governed behind the scene by the Anglo American multi- national corporate network.

The International Committee of the Red Cross produced a report in March 2024 which details the increasing humanitarian disaster in North Kivu. However, the ICRC and the entire Western apparatus, media, academia and non-governmental organizations, perpetuate a false narrative that armed rebel militias are vying for control of the mines:

The increase in the number of parties involved in the fighting is a challenge. Around 100 different groups, of varying size and degree of organization, are competing for control of the land and resources.”

That narrative is a lie. Congolese territory has been invaded and occupied by its aggressive Western backed neighbors, Rwanda and Uganda, for the last 25 years.

Currently Goma is calm. The fighting between the Congolese Armed Forces, Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo (FARDC) and M23 (Rwandan military) is  most active in North Kivu in the vicinity around Goma.

People have been fleeing the countryside to seek shelter as close to Goma as possible. Camps are now extremely over- crowded. Food is being restricted from coming into the city because M23 are blockading roads mainly from Masisi Territory where most food staples such as potatoes, cassava and maize are grown. Food is now very expensive in Goma. There are currently around 1,7 million internally displaced people in North Kivu . Just under 1 million are now seeking safety in Goma. Goma had a previous population of 1.5 million.

In the first week of May, 2024, Rwanda bombed a temporary refugee camp, Mugunga, a village between Sake and Goma resulting in more than 25 dead and many injured. This is not an unusual occurrence of violence, just one of thousands of attacks by Rwanda/M23 on unarmed civilians. Countless massacres are done using machetes to save on bullets. For the Congolese there are NO AMBULANCES . There are no paramedics with painkillers. Injured people are transported by motorbike on rough, muddy, unpaved roads to the nearest hospital in this country that has the worst infrastructure deficit in the world. Footage of this recent attack on social media, shows a young woman with most of her leg torn apart, being held on the back of a motorbike by the pillion passenger. The noises she makes are of a person barely able to stand the pain. Other footage shows a tent that was a makeshift home of a displaced family, hit by a mortar. It is clearly seen on the video that a number of young children were blown to bits. The sheer distress of the people around is heart- rendering.

This is nothing new for the Congolese, nothing new at all.

Rwanda controls the telecommunications network over eastern Congo. Everything is monitored by Tutsi technicians. People are afraid to speak because Rwanda has agents everywhere.

Forever wars in Central Africa

Paul Kagame`s Rwanda is an occupying aggressor, mislabeled as the M23 militia, on foreign soil and those allied to his Tutsi supremacist ideology and their fascist agenda continue to be infiltrated into Congolese State institutions including the Congolese military, using the UN mandate of Minority Rights as written in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights . Those networks keep the war going because they benefit from the instability.

The Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Congo adheres to the United Nations code of Human Rights calling for the equal representation of ethnic groups. By its definition it is an anti-republican concept that feeds identity politics. In the case of many states in Africa and around the world, it is being used to undermine the sovereignty of government.

In this article reference to Tutsi supremacists, is specifically in reference to the Tutsi elite and not to the ethnic group itself. The origins and history of the Tutsi aristocracy, Tutsi elite, have been covered in depth and detail by investigative journalist Keith Harmon Snow and Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro PhD.

See: previously published on africanagenda : Paul Kagame: `Made in the West`, Keith Harmon Snow presentation on Conflicts in the Great Lakes, Oslo, 2016.

Message to the Rwandan Youth on the 30th Anniversary of the Rwanda Genocide

Paul Kagame has been president since 1994. Rwandans continue to suffer under his undemocratic regime and that of his alliance of Tutsi supremacists who have incited ethnic hatred and division across the Great Lakes region of Central Africa and attempted to obliterate a previously held deep sense of brotherhood rooted in family ties that existed between the people of Rwanda, DRC, Uganda and Burundi not that long ago.

Rwanda 1994 and Corporate Colonialism

The RPF, Rwandan Patriotic Front, were put in power in 1994 with the intention of creating a nexus in Central Africa using the Tutsi elite as Belgian colonialists had done prior to the Social Revolution in 1959 which began the overthrow of the Tutsi Monarchy’s feudalism. As stated by Jean- Marie Vianney Higiro PhD in his article `Message to the Rwandan Youth on the 30th Anniversary of the Rwanda Genocide`  :

“Under colonization, indirect rule allowed the royal lineages to wield power serving as the
intermediaries between colonialists and the population made up of Hutu, poor Tutsi, and Twa.
The Hutu were not only subjected to forced labor but also to heavy taxation while being
excluded from education (only provided to the sons of the Tutsi chiefs and subchiefs). The latter came almost exclusively from Tutsi royal lineages or the matrilineal dynasty as not all Tutsi were involved in the monarchal rule. According to Belgian officials at the time, ‘the Tutsi were born to rule and the Hutu were born to labor’. This ideology stemmed from a European racist theory (known as the Hamitic hypothesis) according to which Tutsi were Hamites or Caucasians except that they were black

Rwanda, under Kagame, is like Israel, a UK/USA military outpost, that destabilizes the Great Lakes Region while it collects and is the conduit for eastern Congo`s vast wealth in resources that until very recently had been solely traded via Rwanda and Uganda to Brussels, Paris, Washington, London and Tel Aviv.

“In 2011, I uncovered an international shipping Air Waybill [Consignment Note] issued by RwandAir showing a shipment of ‘soil samples’ out of Bukavu.” Genocide investigator Keith Harmon Snow spent years documenting RPF crimes and the international criminal networks and supply chains that move Congo’s property into the international markets. “This illegal minerals export comprised 15 parcels weighing 192 kgs (438 pounds) and the supply chain led straight from Bukavu (South Kivu, DRC) to the SGS Laboratories in Tanzania. This single document established the international involvement of the Swiss conglomerates Société Générale de Surveillance (SGS) and Swissport AG; DHL International [government of Germany-controlled]; RwandAir, and Precision Air Services [Tanzania/Kenya]; behind these are investment banks, international directorships and private investors.”

“Kagame is always denying that Rwanda is behind the plunder and murder in DRC, and the media regurgitate Kagame’s lies and help to obscure the complex supply-chains, but the players have been revealed over and over, Kagame lies through his teeth—simultaneously benefiting from the genocide credit—and the horrible suffering of the Congolese people continues.”KHS

The extent of the DRC`s mineral wealth and that of its neighbor, Burundi, have been known about by geologists for more than a century. The Copper Belt which supplies most of the world with copper is considered to be as only existing in Zambia, however Zambia`s reserves of copper are the tip of the greater reserve which is in neighboring DRC. The provinces of eastern Congo contain every resource needed by today’s digital and green energy technology. It supplies 65% of the world’s coltan. There are vast quantities of precious stones and gold. There is even a recent discovery of an unnamed mineral with a crystalline structure that produces an electric charge. However, as pointed out by Keith Harmon Snow, it is the cobalt that is the mineral of the greatest strategic interest.

“At first we were told that it was the white collar world’s bloodlust for Congo’s coltan that was the driver of the war in Congo,” says Snow. “Back in the early years of the perpetual war and plunder columbium-tantalite (coltan) was the boom and so the New York Times and Atlantic Monthly and New Yorker and Financial Times et al ran heaps of racist propaganda about child soldiers and child slave labor in Congo, which they billed the ‘rape capital of the world’, and they regurgitated the empty claim that Rwandan Hutus in Congo were a threat to Rwanda, bent on returning to ‘finish the genocide’.”

“However crucial cobalt is to electric vehicles and cell phones, the military-industrial complex has had a lock on Congo’s cobalt since the 1950’s, and the extraction of cobalt ain’t no Congolese children’s affair. Enter the ‘untouchable’ international robber barons from Europe, North America and Israel.”  Keith Harmon Snow elaborates on the propaganda smokescreen.

“Cobalt is essential for cobalt-based superalloys and these are essential for virtually every industry that requires materials able to withstand super high or low temperatures, pressures, and tensile strength. Basically, we can’t have the military-defense, mining-transportation, space or sea exploration—satellites, nuclear weapons or reactors, tank armor, ship hulls or submarines, oil derricks, blast furnaces—without Congo’s cobalt. A few years ago the propaganda system began claiming that Congo’s woes were due to Chinese run companies that were profiting off the backs of Congolese children with shovels and baskets moving cobalt. Industrial cobalt extraction has almost completely been whited out of the story.”

“The numbers game is also part of the dog-and pony show played by Kagame, Museveni and international capitalism. Somewhere around 2003 they counted 4 million dead from the first and second “Congo Wars”; then the Lancet in Britain did a study and the number went up to 6 million. It still hangs at six million today. An accurate count circa 2011 was more like 10 million. Twelve million dead since 1996? I think its well over 12 million by now, counting the secondary and tertiary effects of starvation, disease, and death by exposure.” KHS

The discovery of significant reserves of nickel, larger than DRC`s, in Burundi around 2010 was the reason behind the attempted overthrow of the former Burundian President, Pierre Nkurunziza, in 2015 by the NATO alliance.

The atrocities committed on Burundian soil prior to that date were intended to be the pretext for an `humanitarian` occupation by the West using the international law brought in by former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, called R2P, Responsibility 2 Protect. This law obviously only applies when the West wants regime change, as in the case of Libya, and not applicable in Gaza or Eastern Congo.

Image: Much loved Burundian President Pierre Nkurunziza (2005-2020)

Fortunately, Russia vetoed the UN Security Council humanitarian intervention vote. Burundians and their military stood firmly by their elected leader, President Pierre Nkurunziza, who later died in June 2020 of a supposed heart attack despite being just 55 years old and a life-long health and fitness fanatic.

As a Burundian stated : “They ( Western and Israeli mining interests) tried to make another genocide in Burundi so they could install another Kagame.”

Burundians continue to be united under their incumbent  president , Evariste Ndayishimiye, the successor of Pierre Nkurunziza. Both presidents are Hutu. As stated by a Burundian source:

“If it were not for Nkurunziza and now Ndayishimiye we (the Hutu population) would  by now all be living somewhere in a refugee camp.”

Burundians consider his untimely death suspicious as do Tanzanians of their popular leader, the late President John Pombe Magufuli in 2021. Both late presidents refused to accept the World Health Organization`s Covid-19 pandemic.

The events in Rwanda 1994 led to the creation of a genocide narrative that has protected the Tutsi elite and regime of Paul Kagame ever since on behalf of organizations such as the Mont Pelerin Society and the financial networks that are behind Wall Street and the City of London whose extractive industry is quite clearly the beneficiary of Africa`s on-going colonialism, corporate colonialism, which has looted Africa since the days of the Dutch East India Company, destabilized Africa and keep it unindustrialized for the sake of neo-liberal economic policy that benefits from the continent remaining as its raw materials market. The ideology of neo-liberalism is to keep Africans in financial serfdom through the International Monetary Fund. Tutsi supremacists have fitted in well with neo-liberal feudalism.

The Canadian multi-nationals Barrick Corporation and Banro Corporation stand out in infamy in eastern Congo, among others. They are Canadian mining corporations but are connected to the Anglo American networks as Canada is a member of the British Commonwealth. Congolese author Patrick Mbeko and the late Honoré Ngbanda, former Defense Minister under President Mobutu, have detailed the role of these Canadian companies in their role of destabilizing eastern Congo in order to rape its resources amidst the chaos.

Mbeko: Le Canada et le Pouvoir Tutsi du Rwanda: Deux décennies de complicité

Mbeko: Stratégie du chaos et du mensonge: Poker menteur en Afrique des Grands

Roger Winter appeared on the scene in Kigali in 1994 and was regarded as Paul Kagame`s chief advisor. Roger Winter, who died in January 2023, was Executive Director of the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants which is an American NGO. He also held positions as the Assistant Administrator of USAID and worked at the State Department as Deputy Secretary. He was the Special Representative for Sudan.

Winter was personally awarded 2 medals by Paul Kagame. He was the recipient of “URUTI” Rwanda’s National Liberation Medal and “UMURINZI” Rwanda’s Campaign Against Genocide Medal.

Image: Roger Winter and Paul Kagame, Kigali

Roger Winter played a fundamental role in supporting the Tutsi aristocracy who were expelled from Uganda by Milton Obote. He crafted the narrative in Washington that the Tutsi elite were a persecuted minority in Rwanda. Roger Winter was not a philanthropist. He worked for the United States shadow government to orchestrate regime change in Rwanda and the balkanization of Sudan under John Garang.

In an interview with Keith Harmon Snow, Faustin Twagiramungu, former Prime Minister under Paul Kagame`s Rwandan Patriotic Front government ( 1994-1995), said of U.S. intelligence operative Roger Winter:

Well Roger Winter is a mysterious personality I should say. The first time I saw this man was on 19 July 1994. This was in Kigali. I saw him clapping the shoulders of Mr. Kagame. Then I was so curious I asked :who is this? I was told that is Mr. Roger Winter. What did he do? He is the person who helped the RPF take power. This is the information I got. Then I asked : why did he help RPF? Oh he was in charge of the American refugee committee or something like this. And therefore he negotiated with the people, the media , to make sure the RPF is the only one taken into account for having suffered a lot while the Tutsis were in the camps and the time has come for them to go back, not peacefully but taking up arms. Roger Winter personally is a trouble-maker in Africa. Today I think he is busy with the situation in Sudan, in Darfur. I don’t know what part of the rebels he is helping to take power there. But he is a very dangerous person for me and for the continent, I should say.”

Exposing U.S. Agents of Low-Intensity Warfare in Africa

Roger Winter worked with John Prendergast, among others.

John Prendergast formed the Enough Project using Hollywood to propagandize the `genocide ` narrative with actors such as George Clooney, Don Cheadle, Ben Affleck, Mia Farrow and Angelina Jolie. They perpetuate the myth of the origin of Paul Kagame and the RPF`s role in the events of 1994, as does the Western corporate media.

Commercialization of Poverty

Organizations like the US Committee for Refugees are not philanthropic. They are part of the Poverty/Misery Industry. They benefit by commercializing poverty, capitalizing on suffering. The millions in funding come from the tax payer but are recycled within the country of origin, making the organization or NGO Industrial Complex an extremely well-funded and influential lobby group to influence foreign policy makers and public opinion through the corporate media. They function in the same way as the Military Industrial Complex that keeps wars going to sell weapons and keep in their pay Senators and Congressmen.

The USA is the largest humanitarian aid provider in DRC, providing US$ 375 million in just 2023/2024 alone. This commercialization of poverty like any industry relies on supply demand. In Congo it functions on a societal level, much like a welfare state, without much welfare. It provides only hand-outs, not hand-ups whilst it under cuts domestic production, making it difficult for genuine entrepreneurs. It creates the aid economy and perpetuates the supply of poverty. Being needy pays.

It is estimated that up to 60% of humanitarian aid from donor countries remains within the donor country`s economy. It is a recycling of money or money laundering which subsidizes the donor economy.

Renzo Marten`s documentary Enjoy Poverty illustrates how the Poverty Industry works in favour of the West and how organizations such as Save the Children and UNHCR use poverty to market their product of humanitarian aid.

Bill Clinton is integral to Rwanda 1994. While Governor in Arkansas he supported the diaspora of the Tutsi elite, many of whom had exiled to America, having been thrown out of Uganda by Milton Obote. As a student, Clinton had studied with Jean Paul Rutagarama, the son of a Rwandan businessman. Clinton had an affair with his sister who he wanted to marry but Clinton`s family would not allow it. She became his link to the inner circles of the Tutsi elite and Bill Clinton became the Tutsi elite`s lobbyist.

As stated by Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro:

As soon as the RPF took control of Rwanda, the United States under President Clinton
dispatched a military contingent supposedly to provide humanitarian assistance to war survivors in Rwanda and Rwandan refugees in Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and to assist in the reconstruction of the country. It set up a military assistance program to transform the RPF guerrilla army into a more professional army. The Rwandan army became an important component of the U.S. strategy of the Africa Command (AFRICOM) headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany

Bill Clinton was an honorary guest at this years 30th anniversary of Rwanda 1994.

Image: Bill Clinton at Kigali International Airport. [Source:]

The West continues with the charade of Paul Kagame, the hero of Rwanda. Jeremy Kuzmarov writes in his article: `Psyops Regarding 1994 Rwanda Genocide Continues With 30th Anniversary Commemoration` :

“President Joe Biden, a U.S. Senator at the time of the genocide, released a statement on April 7 emphasizing that “most of the more than 800,000 women, men and children killed in the one hundred days that followed the launching of the genocide were ‘ethnic Tutsis.’”Biden’s claim is contradicted by the 1991 Rwandan census, which listed 596,000 Tutsis living in Rwanda, with 300,000 estimated to have survived. That would mean that 296,000 Tutsis were killed by Hutu and that the rest of the dead—over 500,000—were Hutus. An overwhelming number of the latter were killed by the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), which Kagame led.”

Rwandan businessman Jean Paul Rutagarama is a very close associate of Paul Kagame. They have recently invested in a joint venture in northern Mozambique. Their business near Cabo Delgado is gold mines and terrorism.

The Clintons connection is covered in `Decade of Death: Secret Wars and Genocide in Africa 1993-2003: by Wayne Madsen.

The Tony Blair connection to Paul Kagame is also integral to the origin of Rwanda 1994 .Tony Blair, Britain’s most unpopular politician was Prime Minister from 1997-2007. Under his leadership the UK was complicit in a regime change war in Sierra Leone. Tim Spicer`s British mercenary company Aegis Defence Services formerly known as Sandline and South African mercenary company linked to the Anglo American – De Beers network, Executive Outcomes were key operatives in one of Africa’s most brutal wars. Sierra Leone is rich in alluvial diamonds. Hollywood dutifully produced Blood Diamonds in order to propagandize Western complicity in the carnage.

In 2003 Tony Blair duped the British Parliament into supporting active intervention in Iraq by lying about Saddam Hussein’s weapons of mass destruction.

Blair is a top advisor to the Wall Street bank JP Morgan and facilitated the merger of Glencore and Xstrata, both City of London multi-national corporations.. The City of London extractive multi nationals are the main beneficiaries of the mineral looting and destabilization of eastern Congo.

Blair founded the Tony Blair Institute for Global Change in 2016, prior to that he operated under AGI, African Governance Initiative which is operational in 14 African countries including Rwanda. Blair`s institute promotes neo-liberal economic policy and facilitates private networks for the City of London financial circles.

For anyone who doubts the intimate relationship Paul Kagame and the City of London, let us go back to the summer of 2015.

Rwanda`s Chief Intelligence Officer, General Karenzi Karake, landed at Heathrow Airport in June 2015 on official business for the Rwandan government. Spanish authorities promptly arrested him for war crimes connected to the 1994 genocide.
Of all the defence lawyers in London who should come running to his aid and fight his extradition to Spain, but the wife of Tony Blair.

Image: Cherie Blair

Kagame`s Pretext

After the RPA, Rwandan Patriot Army, took power in 1994, the armed forces of Rwanda were forced to flee across the border into eastern Congo. They congregated in the nearest foreign place of safety, the city of Goma in North Kivu, DRC. The armed forces of Rwanda prior to 1994 were the Force Armee du Rwanda, FAR. Once the Western media had cemented the false narrative of the events of April -July 1994, the Habyarimana government and its armed forces were falsely accused of genocide. The FAR then assumed the role of the liberation of Rwanda from Kagame`s RPF and became a guerilla-style force operating in Eastern Congo. The FAR were renamed the FDLR, Les Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda.

The FDLR became and continue to be the pretext for Kagame`s Rwanda to carry out incursions on Congolese territory as they accuse it of being a national security threat to Rwanda and accuse it of atrocities against the Tutsi community in Congo, the Banyamulenge community. M23, which is in effect the Rwandan military, use the pretext of the FDLR as they claim to exist in order to protect the Banyamulenge Tutsi community in North Kivu from persecution.

The genocide narrative of Rwanda 1994 supports the claim of Congolese Tutsi persecution.

The only purpose of M23 and ADF is to control the mines, terrorize and depopulate in preparation for Rwandan annexation of North Kivu.

Sun City and ` in the Name of National Unity`

In 1997, 3 years after Kagame took power in Rwanda, the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire (AFDL) posing as an indigenous rebellion took power from the ousted President Mobutu Sese Seko. Laurent-Désiré Kabila was made president by the Ugandan-Rwandan puppeteers of the AFDL. Once in power in Kinshasa, Laurent Kabila attempted to turn the tables on his Rwandan and Ugandan backers. He sought help from tribal leaders across DRC asking for their support to rid Congo of outside forces. The Congolese military from the Mobutu era amassed to support him against the Rwandan and Ugandan invaders.

There is documented evidence of 21 large scale massacres carried out by Kagame`s Rwandan military on the website As stated on that source those are

only a small fraction of deliberate and arbitrary killings, massacres and extrajudicial executions of unarmed Hutu civilians and Hutu refugees in DRC by soldiers of the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) and its Congolese ally Alliance des Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Congo-Zaïre (AFDL).”

AFDL and Hutu Genocide

President Laurent-Désiré Kabila was assassinated in January 2001 because he was refusing to carry out the orders of Kagame and Museveni on behalf of the multi nationals. He was also refusing to pay the World Bank the enormous odious debt owed from the government of Mobutu. Debt owed by a previous administration is called odious debt. Ten days after his assassination, one of his sons, Joseph Kabila, was inaugurated as president.

Professor Yaa –Lengi Ngemi states that the real identity of Joseph Kabila is Hyppolite Kanambe, Rwandan Tutsi and nephew of James Kabarebe. James Kabarebe has been Paul Kagame`s right hand man since Rwanda 1994.

Joseph Kabila (2001-2019) allowed for the complete rape and pillage of eastern Congo`s people and their minerals. However, during the latter part of his presidency he did attempt to act for Congo.

In January 2021, President Tshisekedi pardoned all those convicted of the murder of Laurent-Désiré Kabila, namely Colonel Eddy Kapend, indicating that he and those convicted with him were not responsible for the assassination.

In 2002 the Pretoria Accord was signed in South Africa between Rwanda and DRC. Rwanda agreed to the withdrawal of the estimated 20,000 Rwandan troops from the DRC in exchange for international commitment towards the disarmament of the FAR/FDLR who by that time were denounced by the international community as `genocidaires` responsible for Rwanda 1994.

The disarmament process was used as a vehicle to disarm not just the FDLR but also the Congolese military by classifying Hutu militia as the target of disarmament. Prior to that, the DRC had already been under an arms embargo imposed on it by America. This was the forward planning to incapacitate the Congolese military.

The massive presence of Rwandan troops had not only resulted in mass murder of Rwandan Hutus but in mass murder of Congolese. Rwanda looted every mechanical object and anything of value from the Eastern provinces during this time including machinery from factories, rendering the productive economy that did exist under Mobutu, obsolete.

By 2003 the mass killings had reached epic proportions resulting in international intervention by the United Nations. South Africa, then under the presidency of Thabo Mbeki, hosted the peace accords at a location in South Africa, a casino called Sun City. Etienne Tshisekedi leader of the Congolese political party, UDPS, attended but refused to sign. Etienne Tshisekedi was the father of the current president, Felix Antoine Tshisekedi.

The Sun City Agreement facilitated the legalized coup of the DRC state apparatus on behalf of the Anglo American financial networks who wanted access to the strategic minerals, namely cobalt . 

Over the years the world has been deliberately confused by a plethora of acronyms representing around 200 armed militia groups operating across Eastern Congo, a tactic designed to confuse the public as the armed militias , despite the different labels such as M23 were and still are the invading forces of Rwanda and Uganda. M23 is a renamed version of CNDP, Congrès National pour la Défense du Peuple. Laurent Nkunda was its warlord and is a Congolese Banyamulenge Tutsi. The CNDP then split with another version headed by Bosco Ntaganda.

M23 is now being relabeled again as AFC, Alliance Fleuve Congo. This outfit uses the customary claptrap about seeking equal rights for the Banyamulenge community on its website:

The Alliance Fleuve Congo (AFC) was founded in December 2023, stemming from a deep desire to see a united, prosperous and peaceful Congo. Born out of the need to combat divisions and inequalities, the AFC is the result of collaboration between various political leaders, social activists, and committed citizens.”

Its leader Corneille Nangaa has been seeking the backing of Washington`s new NATO partner in Africa, Kenya`s President Ruto who is Nilotic/Semitic/Tutsi/Hima. All of those ethnic groupings essentially form an ethnic group of Semitic origin. Unlike his predecessor, Uhuru Kenyatta who was an Africanist, Ruto is allying with supremacist friends. Kenyan forces were and possibly still are deployed in DRC as part of the East African Community, EAC, peacekeeping deployment as DRC joined the EAC two years ago. It is said that the Kenyan forces re-armed M23 whilst deployed in DRC which is why the population of North and South Kivu and Ituri demanded they be removed and why DRC is now considering withdrawing from the EAC.

Image: President Ruto at the White House 2024

South Africa and the Southern African Development Community, SADC, are proving to be a genuine ally to DRC in combating Kagame and Museveni.

The illegal trade in minerals from Eastern Congo goes via Rwanda or Uganda. Uganda has been devastating the once beautiful forests of Ituri, home to the Twa which is why the Twa have been murdered and terrorized for so long. From Uganda the illegal cargo goes via Ituri to Kenya. Once in Kenya it is shipped internationally via Mombasa.

Under the Sun City Agreement and in the name of national unity warlords were allocated positions in the new government of national unity and their militia groups turned into political parties.

This is not a unique procedure in the case of DRC. Transitional Governments and Governments of National Unity arranged under the auspices of the United Nations have used the pretext of peace building to gain entry into many African governments using this `peace-building` technique. Somalia and Libya are other examples where pro-Western governments have been installed through this process.

This process is currently underway in Haiti in order to install a pro-American government. In the case of DRC, creating a `Government of National Unity out of military men who had track records of killing in the coldest of blood was an insult of epic proportions.

The Sun City Accord assimilated all Rwandan and Ugandan backed militias into FARDC, Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo.

Sun City resulted in appointing 4 vice presidents under the United Nations appointed Transitional Government. Of those 4, the key appointment was that of Azarias Ruberwa. The others were included so as to make the appointment of Ruberwa less obvious in purpose. Azarias Ruberwa was Paul Kagame`s main agent. Jean Pierre Bemba was appointed for the Ugandan connection. His role was to facilitate the illegal trade of minerals and timber to Museveni.

Image: Azarias Ruberwa

The Sun City peace agreement resulted in the writing of the new Constitution. Azarias Ruberwa was appointed the Chief of the Commission for the Constitution. Ruberwa was from the militia RCD, Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie. Azarias Ruberwa is from the Banyamulenge community. He was appointed Vice Prime Minister in 2003. Under the new Constitution equal rights, minority rights must be given to all ethnic groups.

Banyamulenge, Congolese Tutsi Community

According to living memory, the very first Tutsi from Rwanda, Banyamulenge, arrived in on the Ruzizi Plains in 1936, having migrated there with their cattle herds in search of grazing. There was a famine in Rwanda at the time. More Banyamulenge arrived after 1945. Under President Mobutu, Rwandan Banyamulenge were granted Congolese nationality.

The Banyamulenge community are less than 1 million, around 600 000, out of a total Congolese population of 102 million. There are over 400 different ethnic groups that make up the Congolese nation and yet minority rights written into the DRC Constitution are used as the legal reason for the appointment of Banyamulenge to powerful positions within government and the framework of the State.

Banyamelenge Tutsi generals and high ranking officers have been placed in powerful positions, according to Constitutional equal representation and the historic incorporation into FARDC of rebel militias. These sectors of Banyamelenge Tutsi military have committed atrocities in the past against Congolese civilians. Now their tactic is to turn a blind eye when M23 are committing massacres. They will witness atrocities and do not protect. Currently there are 15 Tutsi generals and 240 Tutsi colonels. These Banyamelenge headed contingents have deliberately given false intelligence to non-Banyamelenge FARDC contingents in order that they be ambushed by M23.

The United Nations MONUSCO peacekeeping/occupation force operates in the same way. They turn a blind eye. There are multiple cases of MONUSCO ignoring the presence of M23. There are videos on social media showing M23 filing past MONUSCO troops who act as if they do not see them.

This is why in 2007 a FARDC general, General William Yakutumba, left FARDC and created the Mai-Mai militias in order to protect the civilian population. The US designated the Mai-Maia a terrorist force and the Economist ran a desultory piece mocking their efforts. That Economist article is now unavailable.

President Tshisekedi who was elected in 2019 and is the son of veteran opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi, has openly called out Rwanda as the force behind M23. In doing so he has broken a previously held open secret that all have known, all along. It was a break with diplomacy for him to do so and on a personal level, very brave. He has openly accused Kagame of behaving like Hitler and has said “I promise he will end up like Hitler”.

In his address to the 78th Session of the UN General Assembly, President Felix Tshisekedi , announced that the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the DRC , MONUSCO, will end in December 2023. In addition he urged the UN Security Council to act on its mandate and charge Rwandans and Ugandans that the UN has already found complicit in heinous crimes in eastern DRC as documented in the Mapping Report.

The President stated that MONUSCO has had the same net result as experienced in other regions of the continent where its mandates are now being revoked. He said the following:

It is thus illusory and counterproductive to continue to cling to maintaining MONUSCO to re-establish peace in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and to stabilize it. Furthermore the accelerated withdrawal of MONUSCO is absolutely necessary to ease the tensions between MONUSCO and our citizens. It is the time to explore new avenues for strategic collaboration with the United Nations mechanisms  that are more  in lockstep with our current realities .This is why in my capacity as guarantor  under the Constitution, guarantor of the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence in my country and to ensure the good conduct of our nation and the well-being of my compatriots, in this capacity  I’ve instructed the government of the Republic to begin discussions with the UN authorities to ensure an accelerated withdrawal of MONUSCO from the Democratic Republic of the Congo ,moving up the deadline from December 2024 to December 2023. And this is the meaning behind the step of our government which addressed a letter to the president of the Security Council of the United Nations dated one September 2023 asking for the accelerated withdrawal of MONUSCO .”

MONUSCO has not as yet withdrawn.

The population deeply resent their presence. The Tutsi controlled military units within FARDC and MONUSCU have presided over 25 years of carnage.

Édouard Mwangachuchu Hizi is the key mineral dealer in eastern DRC. To put into perspective the complicity of MONUSCO, Mwangachuchu`s house is directly opposite MONUSCO headquarters in Goma. Mwangachuchu is a Tutsi. He was arrested by the Congolese authorities earlier this year for his illegal activities spanning decades, of supplying Congolese minerals, coltan from the Rubaya mines, to Rwanda. He was released from prison pleading charges of persecution as he is Banyamulenge.

Tshisekedi knows FARDC is infiltrated but cannot change this as the Banyamulenge are protected by the Constitution and must have representation in all sectors of government. Many Banyamulenge Tutsi are in high positions in the National Intelligence Service and the police.

Using members from the Banyamulenge community to act for the interests of Kagame when in powerful military or government positions is an on-going reason for the continuation of instability in the east.

 The Parliament passed an extremely important Bill in 2023 that makes it illegal to assimilate into FARDC any soldier that has previously borne arms against the State. The passing of this Bill is in defiance of the United Nations and accords such as Sun City.

It is for Congo and the Banyamulenge community to resolve this issue once and for all. For the Banyamulenge moneyed elites, it is for them to come to terms with the fact that they no longer need to be slaves to a Rwandan Tutsi aristocracy, who class them as lowly cousins; they can instead be full citizens of the DRC and work for the interests of the Congolese nation. However unless they can dramatically change their views there can be no inclusion of them into Congolese society.

The Banyamulenge community continue to demand the right to land. This is an indication that they do not see themselves as citizens of Congo, they do not see themselves as Congolese but as Rwandan Tutsis.

If the Great Lakes nations are to proceed peacefully, the dictatorship of Paul Kagame and the Tutsi supremacist ideology must end. In a televised address to the convention of the Rwandan People’s Government in Exile (GREX) journalist Keith Harmon Snow reiterated the need for change in Rwanda and that:

Until we forgive, we do not love. And more than anything else in the world, love is in need of love today. And so, I will close by saying that we must both understand and never forget our true history. It is only through this understanding, this truth, combined with integrity, forgiveness and love, can we hope to break the cycle of violence against others, and ourselves. This is a very personal responsibility for each and every one of us.”- Keith Harmon Snow ` The Emancipation of the Rwandan People` given at the convention of the Rwandan People’s Government in Exile (GREX)  Paris, 2023.

Rwanda are Conscripting Rwandans

Footage on social media shows the state of Rwandan foot soldiers, those captured by FARDC  and held as POWs. They are emaciated. Many of these young, under-fed recruits are from very poor rural areas of Rwanda. Paul Kagame runs an apartheid, feudal state that discriminates against poor, rural people especially Hutu Rwandans. There are no human rights in Paul Kagame’s Rwanda. Kagame has reigned supreme for the last 30 years. He has returned Rwanda to the supremacist ideology of his forefathers of the Tutsi aristocracy who kept Hutu as landless, cattle-less serfs and treated the poor of their own kind with same cruel disdain. The Tutsi elite are facsist supremacists who view themselves as the only rightful rulers of the Great Lakes. They despise other people and like Hitler`s Nazi ideology do not regard them as worthy of living.

Asylum Center

The UK has finalized a deal with Rwanda to send  migrants  entering the UK to Rwanda to be processed in a facility there. Veteran Congolese activist, Charles Onana says that this deal is to supply new cannon fodder for the Rwandan military. Others say it is to start an ISIS cell in Great Lakes region.

The UK-Rwanda deal is also very likely to do with cash. The UK are using it as a pretext to prop up the ailing economy of Kagame`s Rwanda in order to keep the illegal mineral trade operating.

FARC are securing more areas from M23 control which  has led to a much reduced illegal flow of minerals from Congo mines to Rwanda. Rwanda used to be in the top 10 gold exporters globally.

There is no gold in Rwanda.

Regional Support

Burundi is fully supporting DRC. There is a strong friendship between Burundian President Évariste Ndayishimiye and President Tshisekedi. Évariste Ndayishimiye has called on Rwandans to be brothers once again in the Great Lakes.

Tanzania has now joined Burundi and Congo in calling out Paul Kagame as the operator of all terrorism in the region, including in northern Mozambique.

Child Slavery in perspective

To trade in coltan you need a mineral trading license that costs around $60 000. The cost of the license is part of the conflict-free certification. All that does is keep the trade within the elite circles. All the hype in the media about child labor is to continue this narrative of `conflict-free`. A child can earn more in a week digging for coltan than he could earn in a year otherwise. The real slavery is the imperialist system operated from the West that has kept Africa the raw materials market of the world, the spider`s web of Empire.

Until recently Congo had an annual budget of $6 billion. Tshisekedi has now managed by forcing taxation rises, to increase it to $18 billion. Congo is 5x larger the France. It is the richest country in the world in terms of resources and yet its annual budget is the equivalent to that of just one province in South Africa, the Western Cape.

90% of its revenue (figure now lower as Tshisekedi is diversifying the economy) is from mining. Western mining companies in Africa can pay as little as 3% tax through fraudulent accounting. Mining corporations in DRC currently pay around 10% tax. Congo has been the looting ground of the West since the days of King Leopold and his rubber plantations.

Kagame`s nexus is now crumbling as the entire edifice of Western hegemony, of all its human rights, democratic rules based order collapses into the rubble of Gaza.

Several years ago, people in DRC were misled into believing in Paul Kagame`s demise. The celebrations that took place were larger and more exuberant  than if Congo had won the World Cup. All that is needed is the emancipation of the Rwandan people which will lead to the emancipation of the Congolese and the re-unification of the Great Lakes nations.


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